MORAL NORMS AND VALUES VS. DIRECTIVES AND METHODS OF SOCIAL ENGINEERING
As a specific type of operational behaviour intended to furnish solutions of social problems social engineering functions in virtue of certain moral norms and evaluations. The directives and methods of social engineering are conceived and applied in accordance with a moral point of view held by the social engineer. This moral point of view, with its characteristic values, goals, norms and evaluations, influences the selection of the ways and means that he makes to realize his project. The social engineer is both a specialist who designs and applies certain norms, and a moralist who identifies, explains and justifies the motives and objectives underlying them. The directives of the adherent to a moral system and those of the engineer with a certain professional specialization constitute independent variables in his mind.
He develops his programs under the influence of his moral beliefs, of the elements of his knowledge of man and society and with a view to assessing the values that he discerns in the field he plans to work upon. A certain familiarity with the craft and techniques of social engineering is of course indispensable, but equally important is his adherence to a moral point of view. A social engineer seeks to induce changes to the world of human beings. The motives and ambitions of his actions come into the scope both of the moralist and of the engineer. Moreover, his motives are an expression of his political allegiance. The morality of social engineering is a kind of political morality, and therefore the methods and directives of social engineering are a part of political engineering.
Political reason, class interest and ideological position influences the norms and moral values of the social engineer to a great extent. They also affect his choice of methods and directives. He is a politician acting in favour of certain political doctrines and strategies and both his morality and professional competence have to be judged in political terms.
The relation between morality and social engineering should be analysed within the more comprehensive setting of the history and sociology of political cultures. It can be meaningfully studied only in terms of political sciences. The arguments used by both partisans and opponents of a particular program of social engineering are always either in favor or against some political position. Social engineering plays only a subservient role and therefore investigations of the influence of moral norms and evaluations upon social engineering are, in fact, part of the studies on the influence of morality on politics.
From the point of view of social engineering moral norms and evaluations play the role of political rules. This is why social engineers not only accept them, promote their stabilization and proliferation, but also, with the methods their craft try to oppose the promotion of the norms and values incompatible with theirs. Social engineering is, to a large extent, a program of moral education inculcated on behalf of politics, taught methodically and according to a plan by a competent personnel using appropriate instruments.