Problemy poczucia winy

Halina Wantuła

Feeling Guilty

The article presents some problems connected with the feeling of own fault and demonstrates differences in their resolving. Following questions have been successively discussed: consequences of feeling guilty, genesis of the feeling of own fault and components of these experiences, different forms of manifestation of feeling guilty, feeling guilty confronted with justice and punishment, meaning of the expressions “existential feeling guilty” and “pre-existential feeling guilty”.

As more important among the mentioned problems “importance of feeling guilty for the formation of psychic life and moral attitudes” ·should be considered. In this question considerable divergence of views is noted. To definite contradictory problems belongs the question of components of feeling guilty and that of genesis of this experience.

It should be pointed out that the literature, on which the present article is based, is mostly of psychoanalytic character, as it was available to the author. It results hence a domination of the psychoanalytic spirit (often traditional one) in resolutions of discussed problems. These resolutions are often unacceptable from the point of view of a number of sciences as well as with respect of a direct experience (e.g. views of Theodor Reik concerning tendency to confessions and necessity of punishment and, based on them, conviction of a specific character of the execution of punishment in future).

The idea to outline the multiplicity of problems of feeling guilty and their solving has been realized by the author in presenting other people’s opinions which have been completed only with a few own remarks. The fact that the presented views have not been explicitly valuated and criticized does not mean their acceptance by the author.