Etyka a nauki o zjawiskach moralnych

Józef Pieter


Along with the development of humanistic branches of psychology , ethnography, and social sciences one may observe a gradual increase of factual statements concerning moral phenomena, i.e., those forms of relations of particular men among themselves which are connected with such concepts as justice, injury, goodness, evilness, etc. Under the influence of the crisis of systematical philosophy and evolutionism, as well as in connection with the development of those sciences which – according to their programs or accidentally – have dealt with moral phenomena has gradually arisen the problem of ethics, as a normative science, with the other sciences mentioned above. Some light-minded critics of ethics were of the opinion that the place of ethics should be taken by a general science of morality which would be methodologically related mainly to psychology, sociology and history of culture.

The author tries to demonstrate the of the foundations of such an opinion and, moreover, the necessity of the existence a:nd successful development of both normative ethics and the science of morality („empirical ethics”), the indispensability of normative ethics for education and politics, its suitable role, as compared with the role of „empirical ethics”, and the necessity of basing on it as on partial foundation when constructing ethical norms.

A considerable part of the above theses has been devoted to an attempt at explaining the „psychogenesis” of ethical problems or concepts and their philosophical character. The problem of „sociogenesis” of ethical norms has been settled by the writer in a concise manner. As regards the verification of ethical norms, the author has dealt with them only marginally.

Practical conclusions of the present paper are postulates which relate to the close co-operation of specialists in ethics and those in the sciences of morality and to the „constructive” investigations in ethics, adapted to the socialist era, which are needed mainly with regard to the adequate organization of socialized education.