Internalizacja wartości


It is presumed that there is an opposition between the spontaneous, discovered, personal and natural on the one hand, and the taught, imitated, adopted, and artificial, on the other. The opposition is manifested in different kinds of human activity and its products. It can be evaluated and provides a framework for several theories. It is accepted, for instance that, on the one hand, the most valuable are expressive experiences which harmonize with dispositions and sensitivity of man, and on the other, those which are yielded by obtaining knowledge and expanding one’s culture (e.g. by contacts with art). In artistic creativity inspiration, creativity, originality, and individual expression are the most respected factors but the meaning of a work and the use made of the available stock of creative means are also evaluated. Considering conception of man, the development of the pertinent dispositions which determine particular uniqueness of human individual, is highly estimated but the meaning of the consequences of socialization and education is as well stressed. If man confined himself to expressive acts only, the development of his personality would manifest just what he is. However, an adoption of the generally accepted external values implies a danger of the unauthentic and imitative life. The adoption of values of culture has to undergo in a specific process called internalization of values. But knowledge of values is not all that matters. They must be experienced and included into individual world, they must be accepted and adjusted to the personal traits of the individual. By internalization of values, what is alien to and inherited by man is transformed into a personal and essential element of his life, enriching him by new possibilities of unfolding dispositions of his nature. We apprehend man as ens per se: he becomes himself, due to his own activity, but essential substance of his personality is mode of objectively existing values. The article stresses the importance of activity and contact of man with reality, which constantly bring to light new possibilities of experiencing and acting. In the contact with the world man comes across the phenomena which are contrary to his natural inclinations: by adopting a conscious attitude to them and including them (by different means) into accepted system of beliefs, he becomes enriched with new values. These oppositions (e.g. freedom vs. necessity, rationality vs. irrationality, reality vs. imagination etc.) provide a background to the construction of system of values in the world of man.